"How do you adapt from catching small sunfish using ultralight tackle to giant fish like carp?"
Ah, the love of just fishing. I really like Ultra Light for both spinning and fly fishing. But, when it comes to targeting fish like Carp over 10 lbs, I kind of like uploading my tackle to medium action rods with at least 10 lb line. Of course, I've been known to trot line, limb line, jug line; and even noodling big Flathead Cats in my younger dumber days up in Oklahoma.