Member or not, most golf courses won't let you fish while play is underway. That means nighttime or the day it's closed is about the only time. Liability prevents them from letting you on their course and, even then, if you're caught trespassing that's fishing without landowner consent. Could upgrade the charge from simple trespassing to poaching.
"Things turn out best for those who make the best of the way things turn out" - Zachary Troy Schrah - a young man with vision far beyond his years.